Can you develop antibiotic resistance without antibiotics?

Studies of an indigenous tribe from the Amazon who had no previous contact with Europeans have shown you can!

Earlier this year, US scientists published an analysis of the microbiome (from skin and gut) of an Amazon Indigenous tribe (The Yanomami) who had lived in isolation for >10,000 years and had never previously had European contact. They found a much more diverse microbiome than usual, but the key thing was that antibiotic resistance genes were found in their gut bacteria – including genes encoding resistance to synthetic antibiotics.

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